Light rays which are reflected by any surface become polarized and polarizing filters are used to select which light rays enter your camara lens. PL-CIR (Circular Polarizing) filters allow you to remove unwanted reflections from non-metallic surfaces such as water, glass etc. They also enable colors to become more saturated and appear clearer, with better contrast. This effect is often used to increase the contrast and saturation in blue skies and white clouds. HOYA's polarising filters do not affect the overall color balance of a shot.
This is the construction of a type of filter. The type of process used to create a filter can affect its price. Filters can be constructed out of regular glass that sandwiches a coloured gel in between or in high-end filters, raw elements are added to the molten optical glass so there is no risk of uneven colour or fading.
This is the size of a front lens cap. Standard sizes for snap-on lens caps include: 27mm, 28mm, 30mm, 34mm, 37mm, 39mm, 40.5mm, 43mm, 46mm, 49mm, 52mm, 55mm, 58mm, 62mm, 67mm, 72mm, 77mm, 82mm and 86mm.